Macular degeneration Wikipedia. Macular degeneration, also known as age related macular degeneration AMD or ARMD, is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field. Early on there are often no symptoms. Over time, however, some people experience a gradual worsening of vision that may affect one or both eyes. Worlds Easyest Game Answers there. While it does not result in complete blindness, loss of central vision can make it hard to recognize faces, drive, read, or perform other activities of daily life. Visual hallucinations may also occur and these do not represent a mental illness. Macular degeneration typically occurs in older people. Genetic factors and smoking also play a role. It is due to damage to the macula of the retina. Diagnosis is by a complete eye exam. The severity is divided into early, intermediate, and late types. The late type is additionally divided into dry and wet forms with the dry form making up 9. Prevention includes exercising, eating well, and not smoking. Antioxidant vitamins and minerals do not appear to be useful for prevention. There is no cure or treatment that returns vision already lost. In the wet form, anti VEGF medication injected into the eye or less commonly laser coagulation or photodynamic therapy may slow worsening. Supplements in those who already have the disease may slow progression. In 2. In 2. 01. 3 it was the fourth most common cause of blindness after cataracts, preterm birth, and glaucoma. It most commonly occurs in people over the age of fifty and in the United States is the most common cause of vision loss in this age group. About 0. Signs and symptomseditSigns and symptoms of macular degeneration include Visual symptoms. Distorted vision in the form of metamorphopsia, in which a grid of straight lines appears wavy and parts of the grid may appear blank Patients often first notice this when looking at things like miniblinds in their home or telephone poles while driving. There may also be central scotomas, shadows or missing areas of vision. Slow recovery of visual function after exposure to bright light photostress testVisual acuity drastically decreasing two levels or more, e. Blurred vision Those with nonexudative macular degeneration may be asymptomatic or notice a gradual loss of central vision, whereas those with exudative macular degeneration often notice a rapid onset of vision loss often caused by leakage and bleeding of abnormal blood vessels. Trouble discerning colors, specifically dark ones from dark ones and light ones from light ones. A loss in contrast sensitivity. Macular degeneration by itself will not lead to total blindness. For that matter, only a very small number of people with visual impairment are totally blind. In almost all cases, some vision remains, mainly peripheral. Other complicating conditions may possibly lead to such an acute condition severe stroke or trauma, untreated glaucoma, etc., but few macular degeneration patients experience total visual loss. The area of the macula comprises only about 2. Even though the macula provides such a small fraction of the visual field, almost half of the visual cortex is devoted to processing macular information. The loss of central vision profoundly affects visual functioning. It is quite difficult, for example, to read without central vision. Pictures that attempt to depict the central visual loss of macular degeneration with a black spot do not really do justice to the devastating nature of the visual loss. This can be demonstrated by printing letters six inches high on a piece of paper and attempting to identify them while looking straight ahead and holding the paper slightly to the side. Most people find this difficult to do. Risk factorseditAging Advanced age is the strongest predictor of AMD, particularly over 5. Family history Environment and lifestyleeditSmoking Smoking tobacco increases the risk of AMD by two to three times that of someone who has never smoked, and may be the most important modifiable factor in its prevention. A review of previous studies found a strong association between current smoking and AMD. Cigarette smoking is likely to have toxic effects on the retina. Keratoconus. International Classification of Diseases, Revision 9 1975 Return to International Classification of Diseases. A sinistra, una foto della macula di un soggetto giovane ove possibile riconoscere il riflesso maculare e laspetto giallognolo dato dalla xantofilla. Hagerman.Fig4.jpg' alt='Soft Drusen Hard Drusen' title='Soft Drusen Hard Drusen' />Hypertension high blood pressure In the ALIENOR study 2. AMD were not significantly associated with systolic or diastolic BP, hypertension, or use of antihypertensive medications, but elevated pulse pressure PP systolic BP minus diastolic BP was significantly associated with an increased risk of late AMD. Atherosclerosis High cholesterol Elevated cholesterol may increase the risk of AMD1. Politia Mizil Program Bulletin Brasov. Obesity Abdominal obesity is a risk factor, especially among men1. Fat intake Consuming high amounts of certain fats including saturated fats, trans fats and omega 6 fatty acids likely contributes to AMD, while monounsaturated fats are potentially protective. Sony Xperia And Install here. In particular, 3 fatty acids may decrease the risk of AMD. Exposure to sunlight,dubious discuss especially blue light Evidence is conflicting as to whether exposure to sunlight contributes to the development of macular degeneration. A recent study on 4. Other research, however, has shown high energy visible light may contribute to AMD. GeneticseditRecurrence ratios for siblings of an affected individual are three to sixfold higher than in the general population. Genetic linkage analysis has identified 5 sets of gene variants at three locations on different chromosomes 1, 6 and 1. These genes have roles regulating immune response, inflammatory processes and homeostasis of the retina. Variants of these genes give rise to different kinds of dysfunction in these processes. Over time, this results in accumulation of intracellular and extracellular metabolic debris. This can cause scarring of the retina or breakdown of its vascularization. Genetic tests are available for some of these gene variations. However, pathogenesis of macular degeneration is a complex interaction between genetics, environment and lifestyle, and presence of unfavorable genetic factors doesnt necessarily predict progression to disease. The three loci where identified gene variants are found are designated Complement Factor H CFH on chromosome 1 at location 1q. HTRA serine peptidase 1Age Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 HTRA1ARMS2 on chromosome 1. Complement Factor BComplement Component 2 CFBCC2 on chromosome 6 at 6p. Specific geneseditPolymorphisms in genes for complement system proteins The genes for the complement system proteins factor H CFH, factor B CFB and factor 3 C3 are strongly associated with a persons risk for developing AMD. CFH is involved in inhibiting the inflammatory response. The mutation in CFH Y4. H results in reduced ability of CFH to regulate complement on critical surfaces such as the retina and leads to increased inflammatory response within the macula. Absence of the complement factor H related genes R3 and R1 protects against AMD. Two independent studies in 2. Arg. 80. Gly in the C3 gene, which is a central protein of the complement system, is strongly associated with the occurrence of AMD. The authors of both papers consider their study to underscore the influence of the complement pathway in the pathogenesis of this disease. In two 2. 00. 6 studies, another gene that has implications for the disease, called HTRA1 encoding a secreted serine protease, was identified.